Abstract : Unprovoked epilepsy is a common chronic brain disorder but the exact pathogenesis of is not clearly understood. Recent studies demonstrated the possibility for the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) to be involved in this neurological illness and the molecular targets of most of antiepileptic medications are ion channels such as transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are thought to be partially responsible for epileptic seizures. To determine if there is any correlation between electroencephalogram changes in adult patients with unprovoked epilepsy disorder and (TRPV1) protein concentration. A case-control study was conducted on a total of 154 (male and female) subjects, 76 of them constituting the case group, which presented with unprovoked epilepsy, and the other 78 of making up the control group. The study data were collected during the period from 15th September 2020 to 1st July 2021 by the use of routine electroencephalogram with activation procedure and assessment of protein level by the sandwich ELISA method, in addition to other biochemical and haematological investigations. The mean TRPV1 protein concentration was (0.53 ± 0.8) in epileptic patient, and the highest mean protein concentration was among patients aged >45 years, with no significant differences between the case and control groups. A significantly higher mean TRPV1 concentration was associated with a positive family history of epilepsy, and the absence of epileptiform changes

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