Abstract : All eukaryotic cells release nanosized extracellular vesicles, or nEV, into the extracellular spaces. They have been found in various bodily fluids and are critical as intercellular communication mediators. nEV transport proteins, lipids, metabolites, and nucleic acids from donor cells to destination cells nearby or at a distance, altering the recipient cells' biological characteristics. Because of this specific characteristic, EVs are an excellent drug carrier for medicinal purposes. Compared to manufactured nanoparticles, natural encapsulation (nEV) has several benefits, such as biocompatibility, natural targeting capability, and long-term safety. Additionally, nEV can be swiftly loaded with the preferred medication, separated from a variety of biological sources, and altered to increase their effectiveness as specific drug delivery vehicles. Here, we review these facets of nEV and discuss the factors to consider when selecting the drug loading technique, nEV source, and surface modification tactics. We also discuss the obstacles that need to be removed for nEV-based drug delivery technologies to reach their full potential in clinical settings.

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