Abstract : Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with a prevalence of up to 10%. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D levels in PCOS women compared to normal fertile women and the relation between vitamin D and fasting insulin hormone levels in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted on 80 subjects who were classified into two groups: group (I) cases included 40 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS and group (II) control included 40 normal fertile women. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all the patients were recorded Results: No significant differences were noticed between groups regarding age, body mass index, sun exposure, however, cases group had lower gravidity. The results showed that LH level was significantly higher in PCOS group compared to the control one, while the opposite trend was observed in FSH levels. The fasting insulin hormone level was higher in PCOS group compared to control. PCOS group had a significantly lower 25 (OH) D level in comparison with the control group. In the PCOS group, 25 (OH) D level was negatively correlated with both fasting insulin level and body mass index. Conclusion: Women with PCOS had a significantly lower serum 25 (OH) D level compared to normal fertile women. Insulin resistance was prevalent in PCOS patients and there was a significant inverse correlation between vitamin D level and both fasting ins

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