Abstract : Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection poses a significant public health problem in Egypt and developing countries, accounting for the highest prevalence globally. This study aimed to measure the level of CXCL-10 and TGF-B1 in chronic HCV patients before and following treatment with direct-acting antiviral therapy (DAAs). The study included 50 subjects, divided into two groups: thirty individuals with HCV infection and twenty HCV-negative individuals who were considered to be in good health and served as the control group. We selected 30 HCV-positive patients who did not start treatment from all HCV-positive patients who attended an endemic clinic. Patients were followed up for 12 or 24 weeks after their DAA treatment. Then, based on treatment response, we classified these patients into (15 HCV-positive patients who responded to treatment) and (15 HCV-positive patients who did not respond to treatment). CXCL10 and TGFB1 were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). There was a significant positive correlation between CXCL10 and TGFB1 levels in all studied groups. Compared to responders and control groups, CXCL10 and TGFB1 levels were significantly higher in HCV patients and non-responders who did not initiate therapy. Therefore, CXCL10 and TGFB1 could be combined with HCV PCR to improve the sensitivity and specificity of treatment response detection.

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