Abstract : Thalassemia is one of the greatest human monogenic diseases, These inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis are considered as a reduced production of globin chains of hemoglobin. Aim of study : To study the incidence and determinants of viral infection with hepatitis B and C in patients with thalassemia post blood transfusion. Patient and method: This cross sectional study was performed at thalassemia center from November 2019- April 2020. . All ages were included in this study. Two hundred (200) patients were included, . Age range from (3 months - 46 years. .we send the patients for all investigations including Hb, Hb electrophoresis, liver function test, viral markers, renal function test, weight, length measure. SPSS version 23 was used for analysis. Results: of 200 thalassemic patient, all of them on blood transfusion, 3 of them infected with hepatitis B (1.5%) and 26(98.5 %) patient infected with hepatitis C and the total number was 29 (14.5 %). Recommendation: All patient must checked several times before transfusion and the blood must be tested (2-3) times before transfusion and should use new instruments before transfusion

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