Abstract : Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Star anise mouthwash against S. mutans and to find the most effective concentration of Star anise and Moringa Oleifera mouthwashes, compared to Fluoride mouthwash which has been thoroughly investigated in the literature. Material and methods: Seventy children 6-13 years old were randomly selected from outpatient clinics of the Pediatric Dentistry Department. They were randomly assigned to 7 groups according to the type of intervention, which were either Star anise, Moringa Oleifera (5%,10%,15% concentrations), or Fluoride. They were instructed to use the prepared herbal mouthwash for a week and a sample of non-stimulated saliva was obtained before and after an intervention. The preparation of the herbal extracts was performed followed by the mouthwash, then the required media for the microbial cultivation was made ready to receive the saliva samples for obtaining the microbial count. Statistical analysis was then done to investigate the bacterial count before and after the use of the mouthwash. Results: There was a statistically significant bacterial reduction between all the groups except for Fluoride, 15% Star anise, 10% and 15% Moringa groups with the highest mean percentage bacterial reduction in the Star anise 15% group and the least mean percentage bacterial reduction in the Star Anise 5% group. Conclusions: All the herbal groups were effective in bacterial reduction at certain concentrations; compared to Fluorid

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