Abstract : Hypovitaminosis D can result from a disruption in any part of the vitamin D metabolism and can occur at any age. Common manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are symmetric low back pain, muscle weakness, muscle pain, and throbbing bone pain. Reduced bone mass combined with muscle weakness can lead to falls and fractures. The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, exerts its effect on calcium and phosphate metabolism via specific nuclear receptors. One of the diverse biological roles of vitamin D is its effect on pain sensitivity. The nociceptive, neuropathic, and psychological components of pain are regulated by both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The immune system also has a role in pain through its effects on inflammatory processes. Studies have postulated an important role of vitamin D in the regulatory mechanisms of both central and peripheral components of pain sensitivity by its action on central pain sensitization and immune modulation. Vitamin D supplementation has been proven to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of chronic pain conditions on several occasions. A host of new and more focused research involving large RCTs is necessary for this field.