Sapporo Medical Journal aims to distribute and expand medical data to the World as well as build a supportive and vibrant community of researchers to connect and explore ideas by publishing articles related to all fields of medicine. Sapporo Medical Journal believes that quality and ethical research. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to:
Abstract : Background Hormonal ratios have analytical, interpretational importance. Our objective is to assess the best statistical model to interpret normality in a hormonal ratio. Methods This descriptive review relied on hormonal data (testosterone T and estradiol E2) and (T/E2 and E2/T) from 1198 premenopausal women, through a systematic approach for testing normality, skewness, kurtosis, Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K-S), Shapiro-Wilk (S-W) which assume normal distribution. We tested the graphical methods for testing normality. Log-transformation, and correlation analyses, before and after adjustment for a proposed composite factor was done. ANCOVA and univariate linear regression tested the dependent variables and the outcome. Results The data lacked normality graphically (markedly right skewed and positively leptokurtic), and on K-S and S-W. The log-transformation decreases (not eliminate) the normality deviation, which can be proven graphically but not in K-S and S-W, due to the outliers. Correlation analyses gave unsatisfactory results during adjustment for the composite factor. Parametric tests make more rigorous normality assumptions than that of the non-parametric tests, and could be applied for testing. ANCOVA used a more complex interplay to describe normality dispersion during adjustment, to provide an explainable robust normality assumption. Additional descriptive results were obtained from the linear regression analysis, similar to correlational analysis with different signific
Abstract : The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cyberchondria severity among late adolescent female participants and correlate factors that may cause internet-based anxiety among participants. The study investigates model internal reliability, items statistics and correlation between different factors. The cross-sectional pilot study was conducted between 1st February 2021 till 29th June 2021. The study was conducted under self-administered mode among the late adolescence female general population in Malaysia. The data was collected using the twelve-item Cyberchondria severity scale (CSS-12) to assess the internet searching anxiety among general female populations aged 18-24 years. The total included participants according to the eligible criteria was eighty-eight (n= 88). (36.4%) of the population tended to search for information if they feel unexplained bodily sensation, and (43.2%) of the population tended to read information about the same perceived conditions from different web pages. The internal reliability of the model was (α=0.848), whereas Cronbach's Alpha, based on the standardized item were (α=0.845). A correlation were observed between different factors (i.e. excessiveness, compulsion, distress, reassurance and mistrust)In conclusion, the prevalence of Cyberchondria were moderate in late adolescent female in Malaysia. More attention should be directed toward detecting psychological changes in these vulnerable individuals.
Abstract : The level of knowledge of people with diabetes mellitus, especially about diet management still varies. Patients with diabetes mellitus need to be educated appropriately about the need to maintain regular eating time, calorie counts and types of food. The lack of knowledge on diet management may result in obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which may be measured by their waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). This study identified the correlation between knowledge on diet management and waist-to-hip ratio in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This descriptive correlational study used a cross sectional approach, involving a consecutive sample of 141 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data were collected using a questionnaire to identify the patients’ knowledge, and a measuring tape to measure the patients’ waist and hip circumferences. The study showed that 17% patients had low level of knowledge and 59,6% had moderate level of knowledge. Over two third had the hip to waist ratio above the cut-off point (70,2%). Those who had low level knowledge on diet management had the highest proportion of hip to waist ratio above the cut-off point (91,7%). The association between level of knowledge on diet management and waist to hip ratio was highly significant (p = 0,0001). Nurses were expected to assess the knowledge level and waist to hip ratio of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and determine their educational needs. Nurses are also suggested to provide health education
Abstract : Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy, yet it is typically diagnosed late via imaging. PIVKA-II has recently gained renewed interest as a potential HCC surveillance tool, however literature before 2016 only involves small retrospective studies from western countries and Japan where the aetiology for HCC is HCV infection. Aim: This article aims to review studies on PIVKA-II to diagnose or survey for HCC in Asian countries where HBV is the main aetiology. A search was performed using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Sciences database published from the year 2016 to 2021 focusing on studies on PIVKA-II for early HCC surveillance. Result: Seven articles including one review done were selected for this review. Conclusion: PIVKA-II is comparable to AFP in terms of sensitivity and specificity for early HCC diagnosis, but the combination of both has the best performance. PIVKA-II can be a promising surveillance tool for HCC, but more studies need to be done on the prognostic potential of PIVKA-II as well.
Abstract : Background Help-seeking behavior for female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is affected by cultural and religious factors. Our objective was to evaluate the factors impacting FSD in premenopausal women from Basrah. Methods From (Sep2018-Jan2021), we conducted a cross-sectional study on 673 married premenopausal women with sexually-related complaints for >6 months. Initial visit involved relevant history and examination using non-judgmental patient-centered approaches to diagnose FSD in 219 women, for whom a couple-interview session was scheduled, involved intimacy assessment, use of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Scoring and Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) diagnosis. Relevant hormonal and biochemical tests were evaluated. The ultimately enrolled women were 166 women. Pearson's correlational analysis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. Results FSD prevalence was 24.67%, mean duration (8±2months). Intercourse frequency prior to complaint (3±1 weekly), compared to (2±1 monthly) in the latest month before presentation. All FSFI domains scores were reduced. DSDS diagnosed generalized and secondary acquired-HSDD in 31 and 57 women, respectively. The hormonal investigation did not aid FSD diagnosis. Pearson's correlational analysis showed no significant correlation between test variables and FSD. Conclusion No significant correlation between FSD and any psychosexual, physical, and biochemical parameters could be seen. Longitudin