Sapporo Medical Journal aims to distribute and expand medical data to the World as well as build a supportive and vibrant community of researchers to connect and explore ideas by publishing articles related to all fields of medicine. Sapporo Medical Journal believes that quality and ethical research. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to:
Abstract : Anemia causes an enormous burden of disease worldwide. Globally, there were more than 1-2 billion case of Anemia in 2016. Iron deficiency anemia is one of top five causes of disability globally, the leading cause of disabilities live in income countries low and middle income (LMICs). The purpose of this study was to determine the anemia with associated factors in pregnant women. This is a literature review studies about risk factor of anemia. Search engines used in literature review are Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Pubmed. This study was focus conducted asses the relative contribution of iron deficiency to anemia in pregnant woman in rural area. This study revealed three key factors to be associated with anemia among pregnant women. Intervention including nutrition counseling and enrolling pregnant women with low nutritional status in nutritional program should be the core components of anemia control strategies, needed to address the high prevalence of anemia among women pregnancy in rural area.
Abstract : Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications found in managing patients in the field of urology. The biggest challenge in UTI management is antibiotic resistance. In this study, patient data were taken retrospectively from urology patients in 1 year. A total of 643 patients were tested for urine culture, with the most cases of urinary tract stone (35.5%). Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria. Cefoperazone sulbactam (91%) was the most sensitive parenteral antibiotics used for the patients, whereas Fosfomycin (85.3%) was the oral antibiotics of choice. Aminoglycoside, Carbapenem groups, Cefoperazone sulbactam, and Piperacillin tazobactam antibiotic groups had a sensitivity level of more than 50% in treating urology patients with UTI. On the other hand, Cephalosporin and Quinolone were discovered to have a lower level of sensitivity. The use of a urinary catheter and DJ stent possibly contributed to the increase of antibiotics resistance. A total of 107 patients (16.6%) were discovered to be infected by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, especially among patients with urethral stricture.
Abstract : Background:The monitoring of the activity in Crohn's disease (CD ) may be challenging with endoscopic maneuvers due to difficulties in reaching the affected areas and being restricted to mucosal lesions in endoscope exam ,so the existence of a more tolerable and reliable technique will be highly warranted . In addition to its high accuracy in diagnosis and assessment of this disease. Objective: This study aims at detection of the accuracy of computed tomography enterography (CTE) in detection of Crohn's disease activity. Patient and Methods: This Prospective study was conducted from October 2015 to the end of November 2016 in Al-yarmook and gastroenterology and hepatology teaching hospitals were Thirty –four patients clinically and histopathologically proven as CD patients and most of them complain recurrent episode of abdominal pain and diarrhea included in this study .patients divided into active and inactive groups according to ileocolonoscopic evaluation. Then all patients underwent CTE as clinically indicated within 1 week of ileocolonoscopy. The radiological signs that used in CTE to suggest Crohn'sdisease activity are mural hyper enhancement, mural thickening, comb sign,mesenteric fat oedema and mesenteric lymph nodes. Results: Computed tomography enterography is valuable tool in detecting CD activityand the mural hyper enhancement and comb sign are the main diagnostic CTEcriteria of CD activity. Conclusion: CTE is anon invasive and reliable technique that has a significant value inassessment of CD activity in correlation with endoscopy and it is useful infollow up and preoperative guidance.
Abstract : Background: The most common mechanism of renal injury is blunt trauma. Conservative management of such trauma is widely practiced all over the world. However, in our social-cultural environment, this approach leads sometimes to discussions with patients and families as it often is perceived as inactivity on the side of the surgeons. Therefore, we attempted to assess patients and patients families concerns and the acceptance of a conservative treatment approach in a group of patients with severe blunt renal trauma. Patients & method: From February 2000 to December 2018, 72 patients presented with blunt renal trauma. Mean age was 30 (range 10- 55) years. Sixty three (87.5%) were male. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Basrah College of Medicine under the approval number 0304092-2020. The initial management of all patients was adequate resuscitation in the emergency room. The patients and their families were given questionnaires at their discharge to assess their satisfaction and/ or worries about the conservative approach in managing renal trauma, and subsequently they were categorized into 3 groups according to their satisfaction: totally satisfied, partially satisfied, and not accepting the conservative approach of management. Results: Fifty five patients (76%) had blunt renal trauma following a road traffic accident, 17 (24%) had a fall from height. Sixty-six patients (92%) were hemodynamically stable while 6 patients (8%) were unstable and needed immediate surgical intervention. According to AAST grading (table 1), of those 22 had grade I injuries, 19 grades II, 15 grades III, and 10 IV, respectively. The stable patients were initially monitored with a conservative treatment approach by nil by mouth, administration of IV-fluids, broad- spectrum antibiotics (ceftriaxone), absolute bed rest, use of painkillers as paracetamol vials, and blood transfusions if required. Close observation of all patients was carried out by monitoring of vital signs and abdominal examination with two hourly chart for first 24 hour then 4 hourly chart thereafter, and daily measurement of hematocrit. However, 5 patients (8%) and their family members were so much worried about this approach that they insisted on surgical exploration despite having been made aware of the risk of nephrectomy but none of them ended with nephrectomy, 12 (18%) further patients and their family members underwent the same worries and discussions, but finally accepted the conservative approach after understanding its rationale. Two thirds of patients (n=49/ 74%) accepted the conservative approach from the start. Conclusion: Conservative treatment is the standard treatment for hemodynamically stable blunt renal traumata. However, for lay people such as patients and their family members it may be difficult to comprehend that the traumatized organ should not be explored and repaired. There is an expectation for surgical repair in one third of our patient population which has the potential to cause undue stress to the attending surgeon and may impair the impartiality of surgical decisions. Making the patients and relatives understand and be part of an informed decision making is crucial to act in the best interest of the patient.
Abstract : The purpose of this article is to guide researchers to understand the basic concept of ICC and example ICC analysis will provide for easier understanding of the ways the process analysis in SPSS software. Selection of the correct ICC reliability should include software information, “model” and “type,” selections. For model selection focusing on one-way random, two-way random, and two-way mixed model. Besides that, type selection only focusing on “absolute agreement” and “consistency”. Interpretation of the result from ICC must follow the guideline because currently a lack of a standard for reporting ICC in the clinical research community. It is important for researchers to report detailed information about their ICC estimates by inserting software information, “Model”, “Type,” selections, and 95% confidence intervals.